WAYUU ETNIA. FULL OF COLOR THE DESERT

Wayùù Etnie

Residents of the Guajira Peninsula on the Caribbean Sea, inhabit territory of Colombia and Venezuela, regardless of the borders between the two South American countries.

GEOGRAPHY

They occupy an area of ​​15,300 km in the Colombian department of La Guajira, Colombia and 12,000 km in the state of Zulia, Venezuela. The xerophytic savannah climate in the south and west and dry or semi-dry steppe north and east, is hot and dry, the rain of this region is very small and there are only showers in the juyapu between September and December. In the Alta Guajira is the so-called Guajiro massif formed by the Macuira Jala’la, Chiare, Cojoro and Keuken Epitsú mountains and hills, which can reach up to 900 m South of the Guajira low operating costs westward River Rancheria and the Limon River to the east .

The wayus inhabit the arid Guajira peninsula in northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela, on the Caribbean Sea. It is a region with a warm, dry and inhospitable climate, bathed in rivers Rancheria and El Limon. It presents a number of seasons characterized by a first rainy season, called Juyapu, which takes place during the months of September through December, followed by a dry season, known as Jemial, which runs from December to April. Later the second rainy season, named Iwa, comes to end with a long dry period that runs from May to September

 people

The wayus are the most numerous indigenous people of Venezuela and Colombia; They represent about 11% of the population of Zulia state and about 45% of the department of La Guajira. 97% of the population speaks the traditional language that wayuunaiki, 32% speak Castilian. 66% did not receive formal education. Wayuu people in Colombia, according to the 2005 census, are 270,413 people, of which 20% of the indigenous population, represent the largest group in Colombia. According to the 2011 census in Venezuela they are the wayyu 415.498. Previously, according to estimates of data Venezuela, the total population of the two countries more than 400,000 wayus. The social organization is characterized by clans.

 

History

The Wayuu people are one of the Arawak peoples as a large migratory flow, both moved by the Amazon, such as the West Indies, where they came to the 150a.C.

They were part of their ancestral customs, hunting, fishing and gathering, and horticulture, where it is possible south of the peninsula or elsewhere with the current less desert environment. The property was communal, in the form of longhouse.

Although contact with the European conquerors XVI century, the wayus were not conquered until very late, after the independence of Colombia and Venezuela. This was influenced by both indigenous resistance, such as the harsh environment of the desert, which served as a shelter for wayus. By 1800 it was estimated that the native population of La Guajira was not subject to 10,000 between motilones, Chimilas, goagiros, archuacos, Tupes and kitchens. In 1812 the estimated 40,000 souls, 1500 of them with spear attacking border towns. They occupied the area between Maracaibo and Riohacha and were generally known as the peasants, of which the most numerous and important were the wayus. In the nineteenth century the governments of both republics began to submit plans in 1841 were 18,000 people, of whom 3,000 would be warriors, known to make their cruelty. The farmers were between 90,000 and 150,000 in the middle of the century, in 1858 it was 35,000 to 40,000. The first actions of the Venezuelan government began in 1830, to continue with the construction of some strong lines of trenches that the border advanced north increasingly, around 1893 and was subjected to reduced. Thus, the government of Colombia, eventually cut to the territory.

However, European intervention meant the loss of agricultural land and hunting areas, the wayus compensated by grazing introduced species, especially goats and to a lesser extent, livestock. Frequent conflicts occurred on the European policy of controlling pearl fishing. Then, using the clashes between Spanish, Dutch and English, they were able to develop an intense commercial activity, which expanded extensively in the republican period.

Despite the expansion of the two republics on their territory, they retain a wide-ranging fringe wayus autonomy constitucionalemente have only recently recognized the two states and are characterized by the application of legislation on the entire territory.

De Wayuu mensen is één van de Arawak volkeren als een grote migratiestroom, beiden ontroerd door de Amazone, zoals de West-Indië, waar ze kwamen om het 150a.C.

Ze maakten deel uit van hun voorouderlijke douane, de jacht, visserij en het verzamelen, en tuinbouw, waar het mogelijk is ten zuiden van het schiereiland of elders met de huidige minder woestijn omgeving. Het pand was gemeenschappelijke, in de vorm van longhouse.

The Wayuu people are one of the Arawak peoples as a large migratory flow, both moved by the Amazon, such as the West Indies, where they came to the 150a.C.

They were part of their ancestral customs, hunting, fishing and gathering, and horticulture, where it is possible south of the peninsula or elsewhere with the current less desert environment. The property was communal, in the form of longhouse.

 

ECONOMIE 

 

De mensen Wayú is speciaal gewijd aan het grazen, die erg belangrijk is in de zestiende en zeventiende eeuw werd, het motiveren van de tweede eeuw uitbreiding en onderwerping van de naburige volkeren die leefden ook op het schiereiland. Runderen worden beschouwd als de meeste waarde, maar de fokkerij wordt beperkt door omgevingsfactoren. Elke clan heeft een branding ijzer, als vee zijn gemarkeerd met het symbool clanil. Geiten of geiten, opgenomen het grootste aantal koppen en worden verzorgd in kuddes van 100 tot 150 dieren en soms nog veel meer. Voorheen veel paarden, ezels en muilezels werden gefokt, maar de laatste jaren epidemieën deze soorten hebben gedecimeerd.

Onder wayus, vee zijn de belangrijkste rijkdom en ook de belangrijkste bron van prestige en winst. Hoewel hij wordt verhandeld, geruild voor niet-commerciële manier: een huwelijk alliantie te dichten, zoals recht op een afdaling of te compenseren voor schade of misdaad, het oplossen van conflicten en het bereiken van vrede. Daarnaast, de pastoor hun vee bijbehorende rituelen die hun levenscyclus te markeren. Waar mogelijk, heb je een kleine tuin apain genaamd, waar ze groeien maïs, bonen, cassave, komkommer, squash, meloen en watermeloen, zonder te kunnen draaien of bijsnijden variëren afhankelijk van de weersomstandigheden.

De economie is gemengd als het vereist ook andere economische activiteiten, zoals visserij, handel, traditioneel de productie van textiel, keramiek en loonarbeid op boerderijen, in kolenmijnen Cerrejon en de Guasare, op boerderijen en divi talk en heeft ook het Ayatawacoop Cooperative onder inheemse controle, en de marketing van de stookolie die ongeveer 1200 leden van de coöperatie en 80% inheems zijn of in de dienstensector.

De exploitatie van zeezout in Manaure werd gemaakt voor de komst van de Europeanen. Eerst de Spaanse Kroon en de Colombiaanse regering benut het zout en een aantal medewerkers waren Wayuu, hoewel anderen bleven ambachtelijke activiteiten. In 2005, na een lange strijd, tijdelijke exploitatie van zout was weer in handen van de Indianen, maar zijn zin opnieuw gestript.

CULTUUR

E’iruku society organized clans. Among the Wayuu people there still traditional authority and an indigenous system of justice in which the putchipu or pütche’ejachi stands, that is, the bearer of the word “klapper” that conflicts between the dissolves different clans. As the prestige of the matrilineal extended family “of blood” or apüshi, the higher damsel Alaula exercises that authority. Patrilineal family members, “according to blood”, are recognized as oupayu, allies of whom expect to ‘work solidarity’ or cooperate.

There are at least twenty clans, including the Epieyu, Uriana, Ipuana, Pushaina, Epinayu, Jasayu, Arpushana, Jarariyu, Wouriyu, Urariyu, Sapuana, Jinnu, Sijona, Pausayu, Uchayar’u, Uriyu, Warpushana, Worworiyu, Pipishana and Toctouyu. The highest percentage of the population is in the Epieyu, Uriana and Ipuana clans.

The man can have multiple women. Before the groom’s marriage must agree with the bride’s parents during a meeting called Apaja and deliver to them the amount of cattle and jewelry they make. The woman stays at home and is a symbol of respect and unity. They live in villages, small communities far apart, formed by groups of relatives near the clan. Grazing is the most important activity. The number of goats, cattle, horses and donkeys are the symbol of wealth and power. The substance is a task that, in combination with other daily activities, in leisure time, in visits and when they travel.

A character of great importance in any community is the piachi ‘who has acquired spiritual power through their visionary experience and the granted during dreams or trance virtues that are interpreted as having a protective spirit Seyuu, which is called to heal. The spirits communicate with people who dream. Malaysia is the creator; Pulowi primal woman; Juyá rain; Shanceta, Acaracuy Kéerraria spirits and special places; Yoruja wandering spirits of the dead. The Wayuu believe that after death will take Jepirá, the Cabo de la Vela, place of happiness, where it rest until after the second funeral, as the remains unearthed from a definitive location, the spirit of the deceased makes its way to the eternity.

The knowledge that in the memory from one generation to another handsu’s Wayuu translated with countless fabric objects of special beauty and functionality, developed in a variety of techniques, shapes and colors. Earlier way you used natural materials from their environment to develop and dye the threads of the fabric; This former transformation has been replaced by industrially processed raw materials, especially fine mercerized cotton yarn, acrylic fibers and yarns in bright colors.

A character of great importance in any community is the piachi ‘who has acquired spiritual power through their visionary experience and the granted during dreams or trance virtues that are interpreted as having a protective spirit Seyuu, which is called to heal. The spirits communicate with people who dream. Malaysia is the creator; Pulowi primal woman; Juyá rain; Shanceta, Acaracuy Kéerraria spirits and special places; Yoruja wandering spirits of the dead. The Wayuu believe that after death will take Jepirá, the Cabo de la Vela, place of happiness, where it rest until after the second funeral, as the remains unearthed from a definitive location, the spirit of the deceased makes its way to the eternity.

The knowledge that in the memory from one generation to another handsu’s Wayuu translated with countless fabric objects of special beauty and functionality, developed in a variety of techniques, shapes and colors. Earlier way you used natural materials from their environment to develop and dye the threads of the fabric; This former transformation has been replaced by industrially processed raw materials, especially fine mercerized cotton yarn, acrylic fibers and yarns in bright colors.

The various daily activities, parties and rituals are generally accompanied by the use of traditional music. The pastoral work are accompanied by music produced by flutes or canutillas, whistles made from elements of the lemon used dry in cattle activities. The yocna or Yonna indigenous dance, is used in the festivities associated with the development of women and it involves steps, where she proceeds to defy the man, trying not to fall back. The most important instruments that are used are flutes, whistles and drums.

LANGUAGE
The language of the Wayuu people spoken called wayuunaiki language. It belongs to the Arawak linguistic family. It is an agglutinating language. Records six vowels and 16 consonants. Het is een levendige kant die wordt uitgesproken met de zijkant en een beetje verder terug dan de “r” van de Castiliaanse taal.

THE NAME WAYUU

The word Wayuu is the self-denomination to be used by the Indians, and means person in general, the indigenous to one's ethnicity, ally and partner. He opposes the term "arijuna" outsider, possible enemy, conqueror, who does not respect the Wayuu standards. Kusina is the name for the other Indians, with the exception of Anu, callers Paraujano.

The appointment of wayus as "farmers" is used by non-Indians. The word "farmer" is misleading because normally it is used by wayus to designate non-indigenous Guajira residents and in this case means "settlers". Also called "farmer" in Cuba and the Antilles, the farmers, the people in rural areas and in general, who grows crops or care for agricultural plantations ..

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